Inequality and exclusion in Southeast Asia: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines

Inequality is a defining global issue of our times. Southeast Asia stands out in some ways; the 2010s have seen most countries in the region reduce income gaps.

Nonetheless, inequality levels remain high, especially in the middle-income to high-income countries, and popular disaffection and economic anxiety prevail, even while official statistics may paint more buoyant scenarios. The age-old problem of exclusion of segments or groups in the development process manifests itself in new ways.

This forum discusses structural changes and public policies to address inequality and exclusion in Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines.


  • Dr Zulfan Tadjoeddin, associate professor in development studies, Western Sydney University
  • Dr Philip Arnold P Tuaño, associate professor and chair of the Economics Department, School of Social Sciences, Ateneo de Manila University
  • Dr Lee Hwok Aun, senior fellow and Co-coordinator of the Malaysia studies programme, Iseas-Yusof Ishak Institute

Organised by Ikmas, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

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