Persempadanan kawasan pilihan raya: Patuhi perlembagaan dan prinsip kesaksamaan (Malay/English)

[ENGLISH VERSION BELOW] Gabungan Pilihan Raya Bersih dan Adil (Bersih 2.0) mengecam kenyataan Menteri Perusahaan Perladangan dan Komoditi Mohd Khairuddin Aman Razali yang ingin mengubah sempadan pilihan raya dengan tujuan untuk menguntungkan masyarakat Melayu dan Islam.

Kenyataan ini jelas menunjukkan niat beliau untuk melukis sempadan dengan pembahagian tidak sekata (malapportionment) dan gerimander (Gerrymandering) bagi memenangkan parti beliau dalam pilihan raya.

Bersih 2.0 menegaskan bahawa persempadanan yang berat sebelah (gerrymandering) adalah pengkhianatan kepada demokrasi.

Dalam demokrasi, pengundi memilih ahli politik, maka ahli politik mesti menjaga rakyat dan bekerja kuat kalau tidak ingin dibuang kerja.

Dengan gerrymandering, ahli politik memilih pengundinya, memastikan bahawa penyokongnya mendominasi banyak kawasan sungguhpun sokongan rakyat telah menurun, dengan itu ahli politik tidak takut dibuang kerja dan tidak perlu menjaga rakyat dan bekerja kuat.

Bersih 2.0 menolak sekeras-kerasnya pembohongan bahawa penipuan dalam persempadanan boleh menguntungkan orang Melayu kerana ia dapat menjamin kuasa politik orang Melayu.

Hakikatnya, orang Melayu memang mendominasi politik Malaysia tetapi mereka hanya berkuasa jika mereka boleh memilih mana-mana parti secara bebas. Sekiranya ada parti-parti tertentu dijamin kemenangan sekalipun mereka ditolak rakyat yang majoritinya Melayu, maka orang Melayulah pihak yang rugi paling banyak.

Bersih 2.0 mengingatkan bahawa etnik Melayu mendominasi 70% daripada 20 kawasan parlimen terbesar di Semenanjung Malaysia pada pilihan raya umum 2018. Ini akibat pertumbuhan populasi orang Melayu dan penghijrahan mereka ke bandar.

Maka, pembahagian kawasan yang tidak sekata sebenarnya cuma merugikan orang Melayu. Dengan pertambahan lapan juta pengundi baru pada Julai 2021, lebih ramai orang Melayu yang akan menjadi mangsa kepada penipuan dalam persempadanan.

Kawasan parlimen

Bilangan pengundi

% Melayu

P102 Bangi

178,790

48.48%

P106 Damansara

164,322

19.67%

P110  Klang

149,348

26.44%

P111  Kota Raja

149,021

43.15%

P104 Subang

146,422

26.62%

P098  Gombak

141,112

75.80%

P105 Petaling Jaya

140,920

46.57%

P162 Iskandar Puteri

138,299

36.65%

P138 Kota Melaka

126,848

37.41%

P109  Kapar

124,983

70.72%

P159 Pasir Gudang

124,172

48.89%

P158 Tebrau

123,033

47.19%

P097  Selayang

116,176

51.79%

P015 Sungai Petani

112,577

60.71%

P019 Tumpat

110,924

92.92%

P128 Seremban

110,168

48.39%

P063 Tambun

107,763

66.32%

P040  Kemaman

107,593

93.42%

P108  Shah Alam

107,316

75.26%

P016 Baling

107,213

88.87%

Jadual: 70% daripada 20 kawasan parlimen terbesar di Semenanjung Malaysia didominasi Melayu

Bersih 2.0 ingin menjelaskan bahawa daripada segi kumpulan umur, mangsa paling besar daripada pembahagian tidak sekata yang melampau ialah anak muda, kerana mereka tertumpu di kawasan kota yang kawasan-kawasan pilihan rayanya padat dengan pengundi.

Apabila Undi18 dilaksanakan, ramai anak muda akan hampa apabila mendapati nilai undi mereka jauh kurang daripada datuk dan nenek mereka di kampung. Ada unjuran bahawa jumlah pengundi di Bangi mungkin melambung kepada sekitar 400,000 manakala kawasan-kawasan seperti Cameron Highlands, Gerik dan Sabak Bernam mungkin di sekitar 50,000 sahaja.

Bersih 2.0 menggesa Pas, yang berslogankan Islam, pulang ke pangkal jalan dengan mencontohi teladan beramanah Khalifah Umar Abdul Aziz pada zaman Bani Umaiyah yang enggan mengambil kesempatan semasa melaksanakan amanah rakyat. Beliau memadamkan pelita kerajaan selepas membaca dokumen kerajaan dan memasang pelita peribadi untuk membaca dokumen peribadi.

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Parti pemerintah yang menyalahgunakan kuasa untuk memenangi pilihan raya dengan tipu muslihat bagaikan burung pegar yang makan padi dan menghampakan harapan rakyat.

Persempadanan semula kawasan pilihan raya mempunyai peraturan yang jelas sebagaimana yang diperuntukkan di dalam Perkara 113(2) dan Seksyen 2(c) Jadual 13 Perlembagaan Persekutuan. Menurut peruntukan ini, Suruhanjaya Pilihan Raya (SPR) wajib untuk memastikan bahawa jumlah pengundi di kawasan pilihan raya adalah “lebih kurang sama banyak” dan mengurangkan pembahagian tidak sekata (malapportionment).

Sempadan pilihan raya yang dilukis sekarang sudah agak teruk dengan isu gerimander dan pembahagian tidak sekata dengan wujudnya kawasan pilihan raya yang terlalu besar dengan nisbah antara parlimen terbesar kepada parlimen terkecil melebihi empat kali ganda.

Bersih 2.0 ingin mengingatkan Khairuddin bahawa Pas pada suatu masa dahulu pernah menentang kuat isu gerimander sehingga menghantar wakil untuk membantah persempadanan semula yang dilakukan oleh SPR pada tahun 2016 (3).

Adalah tidak wajar Khairuddin ingin mengulangi semula amalan lapuk dan kotor yang pernah ditentang Pas suatu ketika dahulu. Apatah lagi persempadanan yang dilukis berdasarkan etnik tertentu adalah tidak bermoral dan tidak membantu memupuk semangat kebangsaan di Malaysia.

Untuk persempadanan semula yang akan datang, Bersih 2.0 ingin menggesa SPR supaya memperbaiki pembahagian tidak sekata di dalam negeri (interstate malapportionment) yang bertambah teruk kesan daripada persempadanan semula pada tahun 2016.

Malah negeri-negeri yang majoriti Melayu seperti Kedah, Perak, Kelantan dan Terengganu juga menerima kesan buruk daripada pembahagian tidak sekata antara saiz parlimen terbesar dan parlimen terkecil, melebihi 33.33% sisihan piawai yang dibenarkan. Sebagai contoh, nisbah kawasan parlimen terbesar dan terkecil di Kedah adalah 2.7, Kelantan 2.4 dan Perak 3.4.

Pembahagian tidak sekata melanggar prinsip satu orang, satu undi, dan ini memberi kesan terhadap perwakilan rakyat di kawasan-kawasan yang telah dibahagikan secara tidak sekata.

Bersih 2.0 memandang serius kenyataan Khairuddin sebagai berniat jahat untuk mengubah sempadan demi memenangkan parti politik tertentu dan bukanlah niat untuk memastikan pengundi betul-betul diwakilkan secara saksama oleh wakil rakyat.

Perdana Menteri Muhyiddin Yassin dan kerajaan Perikatan Nasional perlu menolak kenyataan Khairuddin.

Bersih 2.0 juga menggesa pihak SPR untuk menyatakan pendirian mereka terhadap isu ini kerana hal ini menyangkut tanggungjawab SPR sebagaimana yang dikehendaki oleh Perkara 113(2).

Bersih 2.0 menyeru semua rakyat Malaysia tak kira kaum, agama dan pandangan politik sama-sama menolak dan mengecam kenyataan Khairuddin yang berniat jahat untuk mengubah sempadan dan merompak demokrasi daripada rakyat.

Jawatankuasa pemandu Bersih 2.0

English version

Redrawing constituency boundaries: Adhere to Constitution and equality principle, not ethnicity and religion

The Coalition for Clean and Fair Elections (Bersih 2.0) condemns the statement from Plantation Industries and Commodities Minister Mohd Khairuddin Aman Razali, who wants to draw the electoral boundaries to benefit Malays and Islam, in total disregard for the principles of equality and the principle of one person, one vote.

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His statement clearly showed his intention to gerrymander the boundaries for his party to win the election.

The practice of gerrymandering is a betrayal of democracy. In a democracy, voters elect politicians. Politicians must take care of the people and work hard if they do not want to be fired.

By gerrymandering, politicians will choose their voters, ensuring that their supporters dominate many constituencies even though the people’s support for them has declined, thus making them unafraid of being fired, and there is no need for them to take care of the people and work hard.

Bersih 2.0 rejects the outright lies that fraud in the delineation can benefit the Malays because it will guarantee Malay political power.

The fact is Malays are already dominating Malaysian politics, but they are only powerful if they can choose any party freely. If there are certain parties that can secure the victory even if they were rejected by the population, the majority of whom are Malays, the Malays would suffer the greatest loss.

Bersih 2.0 reminds the public that Malays dominated 70% of the 20 largest parliamentary seats in Peninsular Malaysia in the 2018 general election. This is due to the growing population of Malays and their migration to the cities. Thus, malapportionment harms the Malays.

With eight million new voters who will be added into the electoral roll in July 2021, more Malays will be victimised by greater malapportionment in the delineation.

Parliamentary constituencies

Voters

% of Malay

P102 Bangi

178,790

48.48%

P106 Damansara

164,322

19.67%

P110  Klang

149,348

26.44%

P111  Kota Raja

149,021

43.15%

P104 Subang

146,422

26.62%

P098  Gombak

141,112

75.80%

P105 Petaling Jaya

140,920

46.57%

P162 Iskandar Puteri

138,299

36.65%

P138 Kota Melaka

126,848

37.41%

P109  Kapar

124,983

70.72%

P159 Pasir Gudang

124,172

48.89%

P158 Tebrau

123,033

47.19%

P097  Selayang

116,176

51.79%

P015 Sungai Petani

112,577

60.71%

P019 Tumpat

110,924

92.92%

P128 Seremban

110,168

48.39%

P063 Tambun

107,763

66.32%

P040  Kemaman

107,593

93.42%

P108  Shah Alam

107,316

75.26%

P016 Baling

107,213

88.87%

Table: 70% of the 20 largest parliamentary constituencies dominated by Malays in Peninsular Malaysia

In terms of age groups, the biggest victims of extreme malapportionment are the youth, as they are concentrated in urban areas where constituencies are dense with voters.

When Undi18 is implemented, many youths will be disappointed when they find that their vote value is far less than their grandparents’ in the villages. Projections point to Bangi voters, which may soar to around 400,000 while areas like Cameron Highlands, Gerik and Sabak Bernam may be around 50,000 voters only.

Bersih 2.0 urges Pas, which closely associates itself with Islam, to return to their tradition by following the example of Caliph Umar Abdul Aziz during the period of Bani Umayyah who refused to take advantage while on public duty. He extinguished government lamps after reading governmental documents and installed personal lamps to read personal documents.

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The ruling party that abuses its power to win the election with fraud would be akin to the Malay proverb “Harapkan pegar, pegar makan padi”.

There is a clear guideline for redrawing of constituencies in Article 113(2) and Section 2(c) of the 13th Schedule of the Federal Constitution. According to these provisions, the Election Commission is obliged to ensure that the number of voters in the constituency is “approximately equal”.

The existing electoral boundaries are already marred with severe problems of gerrymandering and malapportionment, along with the existence of super-sized constituencies, with the ratio between the largest parliamentary constituency to the smallest parliamentary seat exceeding four times.

Bersih 2.0 reminds Khairuddin that Pas once fought for clean and fair elections because they were a victim of an unfair electoral system. Pas had also so strongly opposed the practice of gerrymandering that they sent representatives to protest the exercise to redraw constituency boundaries carried out by the Election Commission in 2016.

It is absurd that Khairuddin wants to bring back the old and dirty practices that were once opposed by Pas. Furthermore, drawing election boundaries based on ethnicity is immoral and will not help in cultivating national unity in Malaysia.

For the next boundary redrawing exercise, Bersih 2.0 urges the Election Commission to correct the worsened interstate malapportionment as a result of the 2016 exercise.

Even Malay-majority states such as Kedah, Perak, Kelantan and Terengganu have suffered from malapportionment with the ratio of largest parliamentary seat and the smallest parliamentary seat exceeding 33.33%, the allowable standard deviation. For example, the ratio of the largest and smallest parliamentary constituencies in Kedah is 2.7, Kelantan 2.4 and Perak 3.4.

Malapportionment violates the principle of one person, one vote, and it undermines representation of the people in areas that have been unequally redrawn.

Bersih 2.0 views Khairuddin’s statement with grave concern as a malicious attempt to change the boundaries for certain political parties to win, instead of ensuring that voters are properly represented by elected representatives.

Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin and his Perikatan Nasional government should reject Khairuddin’s statement.

Bersih 2.0 also urges the Election Commission to state their position on the issue as this concerns the commission’s responsibilities as constituted by Article 113(2).

Bersih 2.0 calls on all Malaysians regardless of race, religion and political views to reject and condemn Khairuddin’s malicious intent to change election boundaries and to rob the people of democracy.

Bersih 2.0 steering committee

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