Laporan awal pasca pilihan raya umum 2018

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Source: freemalaysiatoday.com

[ENGLISH VERSION BELOW] Pilihan raya umum Malaysia 2018 semakin bertambah buruk dengan korupsi, penipuan dan penyelewengan. Undang-undang pilihan raya telah diabaikan atau dikuatkuasa secara tidak serius dan sering berlaku sikap berat sebelah.

Laporan awal pasca pilihan raya ini adalah satu kesimpulan ringkas berkenaan hasil pemerhatian dan pantauan terhadap isu-isu yang berlaku dalam pilihan raya umum 2018. Laporan ini juga adalah berdasarkan lebih 1,000 aduan yang dibuat kepada Bersih 2.0 berkenaan pelaksanaan pilihan raya umum 2018.

Laporan ringkas ini merangkumi aduan-aduan yang telah pun melalui semakan awal bagi pengesahan, tetapi masih belum disahkan sepenuhnya oleh koordinator Pemantau.

Bias dan penipuan sebelum hari pengundian

Bersih 2.0 sekali lagi mengemukakan laporan dapatan awal pilihan raya umum 2018 yang dikeluarkan pada 6 Mei 2018 (Lampiran 1). Laporan pra-pilihan raya ini adalah berdasarkan pemantauan berterusan terhadap sistem pilihan raya sejak tahun 2006 dan pemerhatian terhadap kesalahan pilihan raya daripada 1 November 2017 – 6 Mei 2018.

Suruhanjaya Pilihan Raya didapati gagal membentuk keyakinan masyarakat awam dalam menguruskan proses dan sistem pilihan raya Malaysia serta menjejaskan integriti pilihan raya umum 2018. Hal ini dapat dilihat melalui:

  • penetapan semula lakaran sempadan pilihan raya yang dilakar untuk memberi manfaat secara tidak adil hanya kepada Barisan Nasional.
  • gagal untuk membersihkan daftar pemilih dan mencegah pengundi hantu.
  • gagal untuk mencegah penyingkiran pengundi melalui proses pendaftaran pengundi yang tidak dikemaskini.
  • menetapkan hari pengundian pada hari Rabu.
  • menetapkan tempoh kempen yang paling singkat iaitu 11 hari.
  • menolak sewenang-wenangnya kelayakan calon semasa proses penamaan calon.
  • gagal mengambil tindakan terhadap kesalahan pilihan raya, termasuklah pembelian undi yang berleluasa, pemberian dan korupsi, atau mengambil kesempatan dalam posisi kerajaan sementara.
  • menetapkan sewenang-wenangnya peraturan pilihan raya yang tidak munasabah pada saat-saat akhir, termasuklah tidak membenarkan gambar Perdana Menteri terkini, Dr Mahathir Mohamad, dipaparkan dalam bahan kempen.
  • gagal memperbaharui sistem undi pos dan undi awal, yang membenarkan pengundi hantu didaftarkan sebagai pengundi awal yang dipindahkan ke kem tentera yang belum siap dibina dan menghalang usaha-usaha untuk memastikan ketelusan dalam undi pos dan undi awal.
  • gagal untuk membenarkan pemerhatian pilihan raya yang berkesan, termasuk menghalang Suruhanjaya hak Asasi Manusia (Suhakam) daripada menjalankan kerja-kerja pemantauan yang diiktiraf sebaliknya memberikan pengiktirafan kepada Majlis Belia Malaysia, yang secara terbuka berkempen untuk Barisan Nasional.

Masalah-masalah semasa hari pengundian

Hari pengundian bagi pilihan raya umum jatuh pada tarikh 9 Mei 2018. Menurut SPR, bilangan pengundi yang turun mengundi dalam pilihan raya ini adalah 12,299,514 daripada jumlah keseluruhan 14,940,624 pengundi berdaftar (82.32%).

Jadual berikut menjelaskan tentang ringkasan daripada aduan yang diterima oleh Bersih 2.0 semasa hari pengundian, berkaitan pelaksanaan pilihan raya:

Isu semasa hari pengundian – bilangan kes dilaporkan

1. Pembelian undi semasa hari pengundian dan malam sebelum pengundian – 6

2. Borang 13 dan borang 14 tidak disempurnakan dan dikeluarkan dengan betul – 8

3. (a) Penyamaran dan pengundi hantu – 36
3. (b) Enggan memotong nama daripada senarai daftar pemilih – 37

4. Pengundi didaftarkan tanpa pengetahuan sebagai pengundi pos atau nama pengundi pos tidak dipadamkan daripada daftar pemilih – 10

5. (a) Kertas undi yang bertanda – 23
5. (b) Kertas undi yang dikeluarkan tanpa cop atau nombor siri SPR – 28
5. (c) Enggan mengeluarkan kertas undi baru untuk menggantikan kertas undi yang rosak – 11

6. Salah melabel kotak undi bagi Parlimen dan Dun 62

7. Sikap berat sebelah pegawai dan petugas pilihan raya – 6

8. Polis merekodkan jenis kaum pengundi – 2

9. Kesukaran untuk memasuki pusat mengundi dan kesulitan mengundi bagi OKU – 11

10. Pusat mengundi ditutup serta-merta pada jam 5 petang – 19

11. Berkempen semasa hari pengundian – 19

Jumlah 278

Bersih 2.0 sekali lagi mengulangi bahawa aduan-aduan ini diterima pada 10 Mei 2018. Bersih 2.0 yakin bahawa masalah yang sama berlaku di seluruh negara.

Pembelian undi semasa hari pengundian dan malam sebelum pengundian

Bersih 2.0 telah mengesahkan bahawa malam sebelum hari pengundian, wang tunai telah diberikan kepada pengundi oleh Barisan Nasional di P185 Batu Sapi dan P191 Kalabakan di Sabah. Semasa hari pengundian, Bersih 2.0 mengesahkan bahawa pemberian wang tunai telah diberikan oleh Barisan Nasional di P196 Stampin. Laporan ini sama seperti apa yang dinyatakan oleh calon BN Semporna, Ramlee Marhaban kepada akhbar The Star menuju pilihan raya, bahawa wang tersebut diberikan secara berterusan dalam tempoh 48 jam sebelum pengundian.

Wang tunai juga diberikan kepada pengundi selepas mengundi di Keningau, Tawau dan Pensiangan, Sabah oleh Barisan Nasional. Di Keningau, pemberian ini dikatakan ‘elaun perjalanan’.

Bersih 2.0 juga sekali lagi menekankan bahawa dalam laporan dapatan awal pilihan raya umum yang dikeluarkan pada 6 Mei 2018, lebih 400 kesalahan pilihan raya termasuk rasuah dan beli undi, pemberian dan penyalahgunaan kuasa kerajaan sementara telah direkodkan sebelum dan semasa tempoh pilihan raya. SPR gagal untuk mencegah, menghentikan atau mengambil tindakan terhadap kesalahan pilihan raya yang semakin berleluasa.

Borang 13 (penyata kertas undi) dan Borang 14 (penyata pengundian selepas pengiraan undi) tidak dikeluarkan mengikut peraturan

Terdapat banyak laporan telah dihantar kepada Bersih 2.0 daripada ejen pengundian bahawa mereka tidak dibenarkan untuk memeriksa kertas undi sebelum pengeluaran kertas undi. Ini menyebabkan tiada kemungkinan untuk memastikan sebaiknya Borang 13 disempurnakan dengan betul.

Ejen pengiraan undi di sesetengah lokasi telah ditolak permohonan mereka untuk mendapatkan salinan Borang 14 oleh ketua tempat mengundi, yang menjadi kesalahan di bawah Seksyen 4(g) Akta Kesalahan Pilihan Raya. Dalam banyak situasi, selepas tekanan daripada ejen pengiraan undi, borang-borang tersebut akhirnya diserahkan. Walaubagaimanapun, terdapat laporan daripada Selangor, Perak, Johor dan Sabah menyatakan bahawa beberapa ejen pengiraan tidak berjaya mendapatkan salinan borang tersebut.

Penyamaran dan pengundi hantu

25 individu telah melaporkan kepada Bersih 2.0 bahawa mereka tidak dapat mengundi kerana orang lain telah mengundi untuk nama mereka. Ini adalah tambahan kepada lebih daripada 500 salinan Borang 11 (pengesahan identiti untuk mengelakkan kes pengundi yang meragukan) yang telah dikeluarkan di kawasan Wangsa Maju. Ini adalah disebabkan individu yang cuba mengundi walaupun bukan merupakan penduduk di kawasan tersebut, di mana sebahagiannya mengakui telah dibayar untuk memindahkan alamat pengundian ke Wangsa Maju.

Di Klang, sekurang-kurangnya 20 orang yang nombor kad pengenalannya diklasifikasikan sebagai “nombor yang tidak diiktiraf” oleh Jabatan Pendaftaran Negara berikutan dokumen kewarganegaraan yang dipalsukan, yang hanya dibenarkan mengundi setelah dikawal oleh pegawai SPR dalam pusat pengundian.

Terdapat juga beberapa laporan mengenai nama yang tidak dipotong dan dikeluarkan daripada senarai daftar pemilih, sama ada sebahagian atau keseluruhan. Memandangkan aduan berkaitan kes ini kerap dilaporkan, ia menunjukkan bahawa pegawai SPR tidak cukup terlatih ataupun diberi arahan bahawa memotong nama dalam senarai daftar pemilih adalah tidak wajib. Peraturan 19(5) Peraturan Pilihan Raya (Penjalanan Pilihan Raya) 1981 menyatakan bahawa tanda perlu dibuat bagi nombor dan nama pengundi yang telah mengundi. Terdapat satu kes yang dilaporkan oleh pengundi di Gombak yang pergi ke pusat mengundi yang salah untuk mengundi. Jari pengundi tersebut telah dicelup dengan dakwat kekal dan menyebabkan beliau tidak layak mengundi di pusat mengundi yang betul.

Pengundi didaftarkan tanpa pengetahuan sebagai pengundi pos atau nama pengundi pos tidak dipotong dan dikeluarkan daripada senarai daftar pemilih

Pengundi tidak dapat membuang undi setelah tiba di pusat mengundi dan dimaklumkan bahawa mereka telah diklasifikasikan sebagai pengundi pos, walaupun tidak pernah membuat permohonan untuk perkara tersebut. Mereka ini tidak dapat mengundi.

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Kes-kes ini menunjukkan bahawa tidak ada langkah keselamatan yang mencukupi untuk memastikan orang ramai peka terhadap permohonan undi pos dan permohonan tersebut tidak sepatutnya mewakilkan orang lain untuk tujuan penipuan. Disebabkan mereka tidak pernah menerima kertas undi pos, maka kertas undi tersebut diserahkan kepada pihak yang melakukan penipuan.

Terdapat juga laporan berkaitan undi pos di mana nama mereka tidak dipotong dalam senarai daftar pemilih semas ahari pengundian.

Ini adalah nilai tambah kepada penggandaan kertas undi yang dikeluarkan kepada ramai pengundi, menunjukkan kegagalan mutlak bagi proses dan mekanisme undi pos dalam pilihan raya umum kali ini.

Kertas undi bertanda atau tiada cop atau nombor siri

Kertas undi telah dikeluarkan kepada pengundi di sekurang-kurangnya 16 buah sekolah tanpa dicop oleh pegawai SPR. Hanya setelah beberapa pengundi protes terhadap situasi tersebut, akhirnya petugas SPR bersetuju untuk mengecop kertas undi tersebut. Peraturan 19(6) Peraturan Pilihan Raya (Penjalanan Pilihan Raya) 1981 ada menyatakan bahawa kertas undi perlu dicop dengan cop rasmi sebelum dikeluarkan kepada pengundi.

Kesemua kertas undi dalam sebahagian buku terdapat tanda di dalamnya, sebagai contoh, titik-titik di sekitar nama calon dan kesan calitan dakwat pada ruangan undi. Hal ini menimbulkan kebimbangan sekiranya undi-undi ini boleh dikategorikan sebagai undi rosak mengikut garis panduan SPR mengenai kertas undi yang rosak.

Terdapat juga kes di mana pegawai SPR enggan mengeluarkan kertas undi gantian kepada pengundi yang merosakkan kertas undi mereka secara tidak sengaja. Pengundi dimaklumkan bahawa kertas undi tidak mencukupi untuk memberikan kertas undi baru kepada mereka.

Kotak undi bagi Parlimen dan negeri dilabel dengan warna kertas undi yang salah

Semua kotak undi, kecuali di Wilayah Persekutuan dan Sarawak (tanpa pemilihan negeri), telah ditanda sama ada “Parlimen” atau “Negeri”. Walaubagaimanapun, dalam kebanyakan tempat seluruh negara, warna label tersebut tidak sama dengan warna kertas undinya, menyebabkan kebanyakan undi diletakkan dalam kotak undi yang salah. Label terperinci juga tidak selari dengan label besar “Parlimen” dan “Negeria”. Dalam satu contoh, petugas SPR yang terlalu prihatin telah cuba menanggalkan label tersebut daripada kotak undi untuk cuba memperbetulkan masalah.

Walaupun perkara ini tidak menjejaskan keputusan pilihan raya kerana kertas-kertas undi diasingkan sebelum pengiraan, ianya menyebabkan kegusaran yang besar kerana pengundi bimbang kertas undi mereka tidak dikira dengan betul.

Sikap berat sebelah pegawai dan petugas pilihan raya

Laporan telah diterima bahawa pegawai pilihan raya mengarahkan pengundi tentang siapa yang mereka patut undi semasa dalam pusat mengundi. Kes ini dikhususkan kepada golongan pengundi warga emas atau kurang upaya.

Polis merekodkan jenis kaum pengundi

Polis yang menunggu di luar saluran mengundi dilihat merekodkan jenis kaum para pengundi setelah mereka masuk ke dalam bilik pengundian. Apabila ditanya berkenaan hal ini, polis memberitahu pengundi bahawa ianya adalah prosedur biasa.

Kesukaran untuk memasuki pusat mengundi

Sesetengah saluran pengundian bagi golongan warga emas tidak ditempatkan di tingkat bawah pusat mengundi, dan tiada pilihan lain untuk sampai ke bilik pengundian melainkan dengan menaiki tangga. Ibu bapa yang membawa anak-anak tidak dibenarkan masuk ke dalam pusat mengundi. Pegawai SPR juga bertindak kontra dengan peraturan berkaitan membantu golongan tua, wanita hamil dan orang kurang upaya untuk mengundi. Dalam sesetengah kes, mereka menandakan kertas undi bagi pihak pengundi berkenaan, dan dalam kes yang lain mereka membawa turun kertas undi ke tingkat bawah untuk diberikan kepada pengundi.

Walaupun SPR telah menjamin bahawa tiada kod pemakaian khusus untuk mengundi, terdapat pengundi-pengundi yang masih dihalang untuk masuk ke pusat mengundi kerana memakai seluar pendek atau selipar.

Pusat mengundi ditutup pada jam 5 petang

Pengundi disingkirkan beramai-ramai oleh keengganan pengerusi SPR untuk membenarkan mereka yang masih dalam barisan yang masih menunggu untuk membuang undi pada jam 5 petang. Pengundi mengadu tentang proses pengundian yang perlahan. Di sesetengah sekolah, pengundi telah berbaris lebih daripada dua jam sebelum dimaklumkan bahawa mereka tidak boleh mengundi dan seorang pengundi menunggu sehingga enam jam. Banyak saluran yang dibesarkan, dengan jumlah lebih 700 pengundi ditempatkan dalam satu saluran.

Berkempen di hari pengundian

Mesej SMS dihantar kepada pengundi semasa hari pengundian yang memaksa mereka mengundi Barisan Nasional. Tambahan pula, terdapat beberapa kes berkempen tidak sampai 50 meter daripada pusat pengundian, dan dibenarkan oleh pegawai SPR yang bertugas. Di Sarawak, seorang calon di Sarawak dilihat memberikan ucapan di hadapan pusat mengundi. Di Sungai Besar, calon BN Budiman Mohd Zohdi dibenarkan mengundi memakai baju berlogo Barisan Nasional, sementara pengundi di kawasan lain tidak dibenarkan memasuki pusat mengundi kerana memakai T-shirt Bersih.

Penambahbaikan Positif

Dakwat kekal

Selepas peristiwa “dakwat kekal” yang mudah dihilangkan pada pilihan raya umum 2013, Bersih 2.0 tidak lagi menerima aduan bahawa dakwat tersebut mudah dihilangkan dalam pilihan raya kali ini.

Pemansuhan ‘pondok panas’

Dalam pilihan raya-pilihan raya yang lepas, semua parti dibenarkan malah digalakkan untuk mengabaikan undang-undang pilihan raya dengan mewujudkan pondok-pondok kempen di luar pusat mengundi semasa hari pengundian. SPR telah menjelaskan bahawa ianya tidak dibenarkan bagi pilihan raya kali ini. Hal ini dilihat menyumbang kepada kurangnya insiden keganasan dan gangguan kepada pengundi dalam pilihan raya umum kali ini.

Walaubagaimanapun, masih terdapat beberapa ‘pondok panas’ yang digunakan untuk kempen Barisan Nasional dan Parti Warisan Sabah, namum tidak ada sebarang tindakan yang diambil oleh pegawai SPR di lapangan.

Kesimpulan

Bersih 2.0 mengecam SPR atas penglibatannya dalam cubaan menghalang demokrasi dan hak rakyat untuk mengundi.

Aduan-aduan yang diterima oleh Bersih 2.0 semasa hari pengundian, bersama dengan penyelewengan sebelum manipulasi hari pengundian menunjukkan SPR tanpa mengenal penat lelah bekerja untuk memastikan kemenangan Barisan Nasional.

Dalam fokus mereka memanipulasi sempadan, bersubahat dengan pengundi hantu, mengurangkan pendaftaran pengundi dan memperkenalkan peraturan baru yang mesra BN, SPR dilihat mengabaikan latihan yang betul kepada petugas pilihan raya dan persediaan bahan-bahan pilihan raya.

Kes-kes seperti kesukaran akses pusat mengundi bagi golongan warga emas dan orang kurang upaya masih berlaku kerana kurangnya maklumat dan latihan kepada petugas pilihan raya.

Sikap berat sebelah sesetengah pegawai dalam mengarahkan pengundi mengundi calon-calon tertentu, dan keengganan untuk mengeluarkan salinan Borang 14 kepada ejen pengiraan undi menyebabkan ramai petugas pilihan raya terdedah kepada pertuduhan jenayah.

Insiden yang berlaku di seluruh negara ini adalah refleksi kepada sikap pesuruhjaya pilihan raya sendiri. Dalam kepimpinan mereka, mereka telah mencipta budaya melanggar undang-undang pilihan raya, terutamanya untuk menyebelahi Barisan Nasional.

Sebagai langkah segera untuk laporan ini, Bersih 2.0 menuntut:

  • Perletakan jawatan segera tujuh pesuruhjaya Pilihan Raya. Sekiranya mereka enggan meletakkan jawatan, proses untuk pemecatan mereka perlu segera diambil.
  • Menjatuhkan pertuduhan ke atas semua pesuruhjaya pilihan raya dan sebahagian petugas pilihan raya (rujuk di atas) atas pelanggaran undang-undang sebelum ini, sebelum dan semasa pilihan raya umum 2018. Unit tindakan khas perlu dibentuk daripada kalangan polis dan Majlis Peguam Negara untuk memastikan hal ini diselesaikan.
  • Mewujudkan suruhanjaya siasatan diraja ke dalam sistem pilihan raya bagi memberi laluan kepada reformasi;

Tindakan-tindakan di atas mesti diselesaikan dalam 100 hari.

Bersih 2.0 akan mengeluarkan laporan komprehensif berkaitan pilihan raya umum 2018 dalam beberapa minggu lagi. Laporan ini akan merangkumi analisis komprehensif berkenaan ketelusan pilihan raya umum 2018 dan cadangan penambahbaikan dalam memperbaharui sistem pilihan raya Malaysia. Laporan berkaitan pilihan raya umum akan menambah bilangan laporan, kertas cadangan dan memorandum sedia ada yang menunggu untuk dilaksanakan oleh Suruhanjaya Pilihan Raya dan kerajaan hari ini.

Gabungan Pilihan Raya Bersih Dan Adil (Bersih 2.0)

English version

Bersih 2.0’s preliminary post-election findings on Malaysia’s 2018 general election

Malaysia’s 2018 general election was rife with corruption, fraud and malpractice. Election laws were ignored or enforced in an arbitrary and often biased manner. This preliminary post-election report is a snapshot of the issues observed in the 2018 general elections. These findings are based on over 1,000 complaints made to Bersih 2.0 on the conduct of general election.

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This summary includes complaints that have gone through preliminary checks for validity, but have not yet been fully verified by our Pemantau coordinators.

Pre-polling day bias and fraud

Bersih 2.0 reiterates its preliminary findings on the 2018 general election issued on 6 May 2018 (Appendix 1). The pre-election findings were based on ongoing monitoring of the electoral system since 2006 and observation of election offences from 1 November 2017 to 6 May 2018.

The Electoral Commission was found to have failed to command public confidence in managing the electoral process and system of Malaysia and ruined the integrity of the 2018 general election. This was namely through the:

  • unconstitutional redrawing of election boundaries that was designed to unfairly benefit Barisan Nasional.
  • failure to clean up the electoral roll and prevent phantom voters.
  • failure to prevent disenfranchisement of voters through an antiquated voter registration process.
  • setting polling day on a Wednesday.
  • setting the bare minimum campaign period of 11 days.
  • arbitrary disqualifications and prevention of nominations of candidates.
  • failure to take action on election offences, including rampant vote buying, treating and corruption, or to take a position on the conduct of caretaker governments.
  • making arbitrary and unreasonable election regulations at the last minute, including preventing the face of now-Prime Minister Dr Mahathir Mohamad from being displayed on campaign materials.
  • failure to reform the postal and advance voting system, allowing phantom voters to be registered as advance voters in uncompleted army camps, and the lack of transparency in the postal and advance voting process.
  • failure to allow meaningful election observation, including blocking the Human Rights Commission of Malaysia (Suhakam) from carrying out accredited observation work and instead giving accreditation to the Malaysian Youth Council, which openly campaigned for Barisan Nasional.

Irregularities on polling day

Polling day for the 2018 general election took place on 9 May 2018. According to the Electoral Commission, the number of voters who voted in the election was 12,299,514 out of a total of 14,940,624 registered voters (82.32%).

This table below summarises the complaints Bersih 2.0 received on polling day, relating to the conduct of elections:

Polling day issues – Number of cases

1. Vote-buying on polling day and on the eve of polling – 6

2. Form 13 and Form 14 not correctly completed and issued – 8

3. (a) Impersonation and phantom voters – 36
3. (b) Refusal to properly cross names off electoral roll – 37

4. Voters unknowingly registered as postal voters or postal voters’ names not crossed off electoral roll – 10

5. (a) Ballot papers with markings – 23
5. (b) Ballot papers issued without the official Electoral Commission stamp or serial numbers – 28
5. (c) Refusal to issue a fresh ballot despite spoiling ballot – 11

6. Ballot boxes for Parliament and state being wrongly labelled – 62

7. Biased behavior by election officials and workers – 6

8. Police recording race of voters – 2

9. Difficulties in access to polling stations and difficulties in voting for those with disabilities – 11

10. Polling stations closing at 5pm – 19
11. Campaigning on polling day – 19

Total 278

Bersih 2.0 reiterates that these complaints are those received as at 10 May 2018. Bersih 2.0 believes that similar incidents are more widespread across the country.

Vote-buying on polling day and on the eve of polling

Bersih 2.0 has verified that on the eve of polling, cash was given out to voters by Barisan Nasional in P185 Batu Sapi and P191 Kalabakan in Sabah. On polling day, Bersih 2.0 confirmed cash handouts were given by Barisan Nasional in P196 Stampin. These reports were in line with what BN candidate for Semporna Ramlee Marhaban told The Star newspaper in the lead up to the election, that money was handed out continuously in the 48 hours before polling.

Cash was also handed out to voters after voting in Keningau, Tawau and Pensiangan, Sabah, by Barisan Nasional. In Keningau, this was claimed as a ‘travel allowance’.

Bersih 2.0 also reiterates its findings in its preliminary findings on the general election issued on 6 May 2018 where over 400 election offences involving bribery and vote-buying, treating, gifting, and misuse of caretaker government powers were recorded before and during the election period. The Electoral Commission has failed to prevent, stop, or take action against these widespread election offences.

Form 13 (ballot papers statement) and Form 14 (statement on the polls after counting the ballots) not issued according to regulations

Numerous reports were sent to Bersih 2.0 from polling agents that they were not allowed to inspect the ballot papers before they were issued. This made it impossible to properly ensure that Form 13 was completed accurately.

Counting agents in some locations were refused copies of Form 14 by the head of the polling stations, an offence under Section 4(g) of the Election Offences Act. In many instances, after pressure from counting agents, these forms were handed over. However, there are reports from Selangor, Perak, Johor and Sabah that some counting agents were unable to get  copies of this form.

Impersonation and phantom voters

Twenty-five individuals reported to Bersih 2.0 that they were unable to vote because a person had already voted for them. This is in addition to over 500 copies of Form 11 (confirmation of identity in the case of dubious voters) which were issued in the constituency of Wangsa Maju. This was due to people attempting to vote, despite not residing in the constituency, some of whom admitted to being paid money to transfer their voting address to Wangsa Maju.

In Klang, at least 20 people whose identity card numbers had been classified as “Nombor yang tidak diiktirafkan” (Numbers not recognised) by the National Registration Department due to falsified citizenship documents, were allowed to vote after being escorted into the polling station by Electoral Commission officers.

There were further reports of names not being crossed off the electoral roll, either in part or fully. Given the frequency of these complaints, it appeared Electoral Commission officers were poorly trained or had been informed that crossing names off the roll was not necessary. Regulation 19(5) of the Elections (Conduct of Elections) Regulations 1981 requires a mark to be made against the number and name of the voter.

There was one case reported by a voter in Gombak who went to the wrong polling station to vote. The voter’s finger was marked with indelible ink before her name was checked on the electoral roll, making her ineligible to vote at her correct polling station.

Voters unknowingly registered as postal voters or postal voters’ names not crossed off electoral roll

Voters were unable to cast their ballot after turning up at their polling station and being told they had been classified as postal voters, despite never making such an application. These people were therefore unable to vote.

These cases show there were inadequate safeguards put in place to ensure people were made aware of their postal vote applications and to ensure such applications could not be fraudulently submitted on a person’s behalf. As these people never received their postal ballots, it suggests these ballots were sent to those committing the fraud.

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There were also reports of postal voters whose names were not crossed off the polling day electoral roll.

This was in addition to the duplicate postal ballots that were issued to many voters, demonstrating the complete failure of the processes and mechanisms of postal voting in the 2018 general election.

Ballot papers with markings or no stamp or serial number

Ballot papers were issued to voters in at least 16 schools without being stamped by  Electoral Commission workers. Only when individual voters protested did these workers agree to stamp the ballots. Regulation 19(6) of the Elections (Conduct of Elections) Regulations 1981 requires ballot papers to be stamped with the official mark before they are issued to voters.

All ballots in certain books had markings on them, for instance, dots around the names of candidates and ink smudges in the voting boxes. This raised concerns that these votes could be classified as spoilt according to the Electoral Commission’s own guidelines on spoilt ballot papers.

There were also cases of Electoral Commission officials refusing to issue replacement ballots to voters who had inadvertently spoilt their ballots. Voters were told there were not enough ballot papers to issue them with a fresh ballot.

Ballot boxes for Parliament and state ballots labelled in the wrong colours

All ballot boxes, except for those in the Federal Territories and Sarawak (without a state election this time), were marked either as “Parliament” or “Negeri” (state).

But in many places throughout the country, the colours of these labels did not match the colours of the ballots papers, leading to many votes being placed in the wrong ballot boxes. The detailed labels also did not match the large “PARLIMEN” and “NEGERI” labels. In one instance, Electoral Commission workers were so concerned, they attempted to rip these labels off the box to rectify the problem.

Although this would not have affected the results of the elections as ballots are sorted before counting, it caused great anxiety because voters were concerned their ballots would not be properly counted.

Biased behavior by election officials and workers

Reports have been received that election officials instructed voters on who they should vote for while in the polling station. This was especially the case for elderly or disabled voters.

Police recording race of voters

Police stationed outside voting streams were seen recording the race of the voters as they entered the room. When asked about this, the police told voters it is standard procedure.

Difficulties in access to polling stations

Several voting streams for the elderly were not placed on the ground floor of voting stations, with no access except for staircases. Parents with their children were refused entry to the polling station.

Electoral Commission officials also acted against regulations pertaining to assisting the elderly, pregnant women and persons with disabilities to vote. In some cases, they marked ballots for these voters, and in other cases they took ballot papers down to the ground floor to pass them to the voters.

Despite the Electoral Commission’s assurance there was no dress code for voting, voters were still denied entry to polling stations for wearing shorts or slippers.

Polling stations closing at 5pm

Voters were disenfranchised en masse by Electoral Commission chairperson Hashim Abdullah’s refusal to allow those still in line waiting to vote at 5pm to cast their ballot. Voters complained about the slow pace of the voting process. In some schools, voters had queued for over two hours before being told they could not vote; one voter had waited for six hours. Many polling streams were oversized, with over 700 voters allocated.

Campaigning on polling day

SMS messages were sent out to voters on polling day urging them to support Barisan Nasional.

In addition, there were a number of cases of campaigning within 50m of polling stations, which was allowed by Electoral Commission officials on duty.

In Sarawak, a candidate in Sarawak was seen giving a speech in front of a polling station.

In Sungai Besar, BN candidate Budiman Mohd Zohdi was allowed to vote wearing a shirt with the Barisan Nasional logo, while voters elsewhere were refused entry to the polling station for wearing Bersih T-shirts.

Improvements

Indelible ink

After the fiasco of the 2013 general elections removable ‘indelible’ ink, Bersih 2.0 received no complaints that the ink was easily removable in this election.

The removal of ‘pondok panas’ (campaign booths)

In previous elections, all parties were allowed and even encouraged to flout election laws by setting up campaign booths outside polling stations on polling day. The Electoral Commission made it clear this was not allowed during this election. This likely contributed in the reduction of incidents of violence and harassment of voters in this election.

However, there were still some instances of these ‘campaign booths’ being used to campaign for Barisan Nasional and Parti Warisan Sabah, but no action was taken by Electoral Commission officials on the ground.

Conclusion

Bersih 2.0 condemns the Electoral Commission for its complicity in the attempts to obstruct democracy and the people’s right to vote.

The polling day complaints Bersih 2.0 received, together with the crimes of pre-polling day manipulations clearly show the Electoral Commission worked tirelessly to pursue its goal of ensuring victory for Barisan Nasional.

In their focus on manipulating boundaries, abetting phantom voters, obstructing voter registration and introducing new regulations favourable to BN, the Electoral Commission appeared to neglect the proper training of election workers and the satisfactory preparation of election materials. Cases, such as access to polling stations for the elderly and those with disabilities, likely occurred due to a lack of information and training for election workers.

The biased behavior of some officials in instructing voters from voting for certain candidate, together with the refusal to issue copies of Form 14 to counting agents left many election workers open to criminal charges.

These incidents throughout the country are reflective of the attitude of the electoral commissioners themselves. In their conduct, they created an atmosphere of impunity among those that break election laws, particularly in favour of Barisan Nasional.

As an immediate response to these findings, Bersih 2.0 demands the:

  • immediate resignation of all seven election commissioners. If the commissioners refuse to resign, a process for their removal must be immediately initiated.
  • charging of all the electoral commissioners and some election officers (see above) for contraventions of the law before, during and after the 2018 general elections. Special task forces must be set up within the police and the Attorney General’s Chambers to ensure that this is accomplished.
  • initiation of a royal commission of inquiry into the electoral system to pave the way for reforms;

The above actions must be completed within the next 100 days

Bersih 2.0 will be issuing a comprehensive report on the 2018 general elections in the coming weeks. This report will include a comprehensive analysis of the fairness of the general election and recommendations for reforming Malaysia’s electoral system. This report will add to the many existing reports, proposals and memorandums awaiting implementation by the Electoral Commission and the government of the day.

The Coalition for Clean and Fair Elections (Bersih 2.0)

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