Persatuan nelayan menyerahkan memo kepada TYT Pulau Pinang (BM/ENG)

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Kami, para pemimpin yang mewakili nelayan tradisi dan nelayan pantai di Pulau Pinang, ingin membentangkan kes kami di hadapan Tuan Yang Terutama.

Kami ialah nelayan pantai yang menjalani kehidupan di kawasan perairan sekitar Pulau Pinang (pulau) dan persisiran pantai Seberang Perai. Pulau Pinang mempunyai kampung nelayan dari zaman Pulau Pinang di bawah kedaulatan negeri Kedah, sebelum dikuasai oleh British.

Daripada nenek moyang kami, kami telah mewarisi ilmu nelayan tempatan, termasuklah cara-cara yang mampan dan mesra alam sekitar untuk menangkap ikan dan menuai sumber makanan daripada laut.

Makanan Pulau Pinang sentiasa terkenal, antara sebabnya adalah kualiti dan kesegaran hasil tangkapan nelayan pantai. Pulau Pinang diberkati dengan hamparan pantai yang panjang dan indah, bakau yang subur dan kekayaan kehidupan marin. Perairan di sekitar Pulau Pinang dulunya sangat bersih dan jernih, lumayan dengan ikan dan sumber laut melimpah ruah.

An-Nahl (Lebah) 16:14

وَهُوَ الَّذِي سَخَّرَ الْبَحْرَ لِتَأْكُلُوا مِنْهُ لَحْمًا طَرِيًّا وَتَسْتَخْرِجُوا مِنْهُ حِلْيَةً تَلْبَسُونَهَا وَتَرَى الْفُلْكَ مَوَاخِرَ فِيهِ وَلِتَبْتَغُوا مِن فَضْلِهِ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

Dan Dia lah yang memudahkan laut, supaya kamu dapat makan daripadanya daging yang lembut hidup-hidup, dan dapat pula mengeluarkan daripadanya benda-benda perhiasan untuk kamu memakainya dan (selain itu) engkau melihat pula kapal-kapal belayar padanya; dan lagi supaya kamu dapat mencari rezeki dari limpah kurniaNya; dan supaya kamu bersyukur.

Kami komuniti nelayan pesisir pantai adalah antara komuniti tertua di Pulau Pinang. Namun demikian, pada hari ini, hak asasi kehidupan kami dinafikan. Atas nama pembangunan, kampung-kampung kami dipindahkan, pantai-pantai kami dirampas, paya bakau dan kawasan pembiakan ikan kami dimusnahkan. Longgokan sampah dibuang ke tepian laut lalu mencemarkan perairan muara dan pesisir laut. Pasir dilambak ke dalam laut kami untuk menyediakan tanah baru buat orang lain.

Sepanjang hidup kami, para nelayan telah teruk menderita daripada siri-siri projek penambakan dan kerja-kerja pembinaan jambatan. Bermula dengan kawasan perindustrian Bayan Lepas dan Lebuhraya Jalan Lim Chong Eu, diikuti dengan Jambatan Pulau Pinang, penambakan Seri Tanjung Pinang fasa 1, Queensbay, Butterworth Outer Ring Road, Jambatan Sultan Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah, IJM The Light, Bayan Bay, Seri Tanjung Pinang fasa 2, dan Gurney Wharf, kerajaan negeri Pulau Pinang telah menambak lebih dari seribu ekar tanah.

Setiap kali projek tambakan laut dilaksanakan, kami, para nelayan, terpaksa mengalami kesusahan kerana berlakunya pemindahan jeti serta kemudahan-kemudahan lain. Laut kami menjadi lebih sempit dan tercemar, kami kehilangan akses kepada kawasan perikanan, dan pendapatan kami juga kian merosot. Kami ingin memetik dua contoh projek tambakan yang telah mengurangkan taraf hidup komuniti nelayan dalam tempoh 20 tahun yang lalu.

Kes pertama adalah Jalan Lingkaran Luar Butterworth atau BORR (2003–2006) yang menjejaskan nelayan Butterworth. Para nelayan telah dijanjikan ‘saguhati’ sebanyak RM12,000 tetapi sehingga kini masih belum dibayar sepenuhnya. Unit Nelayan Butterworth dijanjikan jeti gantian tetapi sehingga hari ini janji itu tidak dipenuhi. Malah tapak sementara yang diperuntukkan telah dirampas oleh orang lain.

Kes kedua ialah projek Seri Tanjung Pinang fasa 2 (STP2) (sejak 2016 sehingga sekarang) yang menjejaskan nelayan dari kawasan Tanjung Bungah dan Tanjung Tokong, Gurney, Paramount. Tekong yang terjejas telah dibayar ‘saguhati’ sebanyak RM15,000 dan awak-awak hanya dibayar sebanyak RM2,000. Walaupun papan tanda pengumuman jeti baru telah dipasang, tetapi sehingga kini ia masih belum dibina.

Sejak projek STP2 berjalan, bilangan ikan kembong yang dahulunya begitu banyak di Tanjung Tokong dan utara Selat Pulau Pinang, kini sukar didapati, walaupun ikan kembong diklasifikasikan oleh LKIM sebagai ikan rakyat. Projek STP2 telah menjejaskan kualiti air dari Selat Pulau Pinang sehingga Telok Bahang, termasuk kawasan pelancongan pantai di Batu Feringghi yang sudah hilang kilauannya sebagai destinasi pelancongan antarabangsa. Penambakan STP2 juga telah mengakibatkan kesan negatif kepada kawasan perikanan di pantai bertentangan dengan Butterworth.

Di kedua-dua lokasi Butterworth dan Tanjung Tokong, saguhati yang telah ditawarkan kepada nelayan tidak mencukupi untuk menggantikan kemerosotan sumber sara hidup. Kini, nelayan yang terjejas perlu bekerja lebih keras dan lebih lama untuk memperoleh separuh hasil berbanding dengan tangkapan mereka sebelum laut ditambak. Mereka juga perlu melakukan pekerjaan lain hanya untuk menyara hidup dan menyediakan nafkah kepada keluarga mereka. Dalam kedua-dua kes tersebut, laut masih tercemar dengan keladak. Nelayan kerap mengalami kerugian dan kerosakan pukat kerana bukan biasanya ikan yang ditangkap, tetapi obor-obor serta serpihan dan saki-baki daripada penambakan.

Sebelum ini, para nelayan telah lama bersabar menanggung kesan-kesan penambakan laut. Namun kami tidak terus dapat mendiamkan diri kerana sudah terbukti berkali-kali bahawa penambakan laut merosakkan alam sekitar, malah membawa keruigan kepada para nelayan. Tambahan pula, para nelayan telah diberi jaminan palsu bahawa kesan tambakan laut hanya bersifat sementara sahaja, tetapi laut yang sudah ditambak sehingga kini masih belum pulih. Kerajaan dan juga pemaju tidak membuat sebarang usaha yang setimpal untuk memulihkan perikanan. Hakikatnya, nelayan telah menjadi mangsa pembangunan. Secara objektif, kemudaratan kesan penambakan kepada alam sekitar dan perikanan tidak lagi dapat dinafikan. Oleh sebab itu, kami, para nelayan, tiada pilihan lagi kecuali membantah sekerasnya-kerasnya terhadap sebarang projek penambakan pada masa depan.

Kami dengan tegasnya menentang Penambakan Selatan Pulau Pinang (Penang South Reclamation atau PSR) yang telah dirancang oleh kerajaan negeri Pulau Pinang. Kawasan ini adalah kawasan perikanan terbaik dan paling produktif di Pulau Pinang selain merupakan lokasi sumber udang yang paling penting di negeri ini. Skala penambakan PSR yang akan meliputi 4,500 ekar (saiz yang sama dengan ‘Forest City’ di Johor), akan menyebabkan kemusnahan hidupan laut secara berleluasa. Sebahagian daripada sisa kumbahan juga akan menjejaskan akuakultur laut di Pulau Betong, Batu Maung dan Sungai Udang.

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Kekurangan sumber laut akan mengecewakan bukan sahaja nelayan di kawasan selatan Pulau Pinang tetapi juga nelayan dari bahagian lain Pulau Pinang, Kedah dan juga Perak, yang datang dengan beratus-ratus bot melawat kawasan perairan emas ini. Penambakan juga akan menggugat kepelbagaian marin dan haiwan laut yang terancam seperti penyu olive ridley (tersenarai sebagai spesis terancam oleh IUCN), penyu hijau, ikan lumba-lumba, Indo-Pasifik humpback, dan Indo-Pacific finless porpoise. Kerosakan ini akan merebak ke Pulau Kendi dan Pulau Rimau lantas memusnahkan terumbu karang semulajadi dan menggugat kawasan pembiakan hidupan marin.

Menteri pertanian mengakui bahawa seramai 5,000 orang nelayan Pulau Pinang akan terjejas oleh penambakan selatan Pulau Pinang dan pemulihan sepenuhnya hanya boleh dimulakan apabila projek tamat, iaitu selepas 15 tahun. Para nelayan dari utara Perak sejumlah 9,000 orang juga akan terjejas akibat aktiviti pelombongan pasir sebanyak 189.1 juta meter padu dan seluas 819.7km persegi.

Lebih-lebih lagi, dengan perubahan iklim dan paras laut yang semakin meningkat, diramalkan bahawa pulau-pulau yang berkedudukan tidak berapa tinggi dari aras laut, tidak akan berkekalan. Sebaliknya, pulau-pulau tersebut akan mudah dibanjiri air dalam beberapa dekad, dan akan kembali ke laut. Walau bagaimanapun, dalam tempoh masa itu, persekitaran telah mengalami malapetaka dan nelayan pantai mungkin akan pupus.

Kami juga sangat menentang konsesi untuk penambakan 650 hektar di sepanjang Butterworth waterfront. Penambakan pesisir pantai Butterworth akan mengancam pantai Bagan Ajam dan kampung warisan Bagan Ajam yang sudah terkenal sebagai tarikan pelancong.

Penambakan ini juga akan mengakibatkan kerosakan ekosistem di Teluk Ayer Tawar, satu-satunya hutan bakau dengan api-api bulu (avivennia rumphiana yang terdaftar “terdedah” IUCN) di timur laut Semenanjung Malaysia serta kawasan burung IBA (Important Bird and Biodiversity Area) yang dikunjungi burung-burung hijrah. Kehidupan nelayan bergantung kepada ekosistem paya bakau yang penting untuk pembiakan kehidupan marin.

Dalam perlembagaan Malaysia, kita dijamin hak untuk hidup dan kebebasan diri. Hak untuk hidup termasuk hak untuk mencari nafkah dan sumber rezeki yang halal. Kami tidak menentang pembangunan, tetapi pembangunan seperti ini yang menghancurkan kehidupan ribuan nelayan boleh dikatakan menentang prinsip keadilan alami. Jenis pembangunan yang merosakkan alam sekitar tidak akan membawa natijah yang baik.

ظهر الفساد في البر والبحر بما كسبت أيدي الناس ليذيقهم بعض الذي عملوا لعلهم يرجعون –

Telah timbul berbagai kerosakan dan bala bencana di darat dan di laut dengan sebab apa yang telah dilakukan oleh tangan manusia; (timbulnya yang demikian) kerana Allah hendak merasakan mereka sebahagian dari balasan perbuatan-perbuatan buruk yang mereka telah lakukan, supaya mereka kembali (insaf dan bertaubat). (Ar-Rum: 41)

Sebelum mengimpikan lebih banyak projek penambakan, kerajaan negeri hendaklah buktikan kepada kami bahawa perikanan dari kawasan yang ditebus dapat dipulihkan. Sekiranya kerajaan negeri hendak meneruskan projek yang jelas membawa impak yang negatif, maka sudah terang lagi bersuluh bahawa negeri telah memilih pembangunan yang tidak lestari. Pembangunan tidak mampan akan menggawatkan masa depan generasi mendatang, yang tidak dapat lagi menikmati hasil tangkapan laut yang berlimpah.

Lebih daripada 200,000 orang sudah sedar bahawa projek penambakan laut selatan Pulau Pinang akan membawa kesan yang amat negatif, dan itulah sebabnya mereka telah menandatangani petisyen Penang Tolak Tambak. Petisyen change.org “Save Penang! Reject the 3-Islands Reclamation!” sudah memperoleh lebih daripada 60,000 tandatangan dan disokong oleh 50 organisasi masyarakat madani. Petisyen antarabangsa untuk menyelamatkan penyu Malaysia di pantai-pantai Pulau Pinang dan Perak telah ditandatangani oleh lebih daripada 150,000 orang. Rakyat sedunia menjadi saksi kepada nasib alam sekitar di Pulau Pinang kelak.

Pada 11 Julai tahun ini, kami telah berarak ke Parlimen dengan 200 nelayan dari Pulau Pinang dan Perak, bersama-sama dengan pertubuhan-pertubuhan bukan kerajaan untuk membentangkan memorandum kepada perdana menteri dan menteri-menteri yang lain. Para nelayan yang telah mengalami kesan penambakan selama beberapa dekad tidak akan lagi berpeluk tubuh dan mendiam diri. Kami tidak akan teragak-agak untuk membawa kes kami kepada pihak tertinggi, sama ada di peringkat negeri, negara atau antarabangsa, sehingga projek-projek ini dibatalkan sepenuhnya.

Oleh demikian, kami mewakili nelayan Pulau Pinang, dengan ini memohon perkenan untuk menyampaikan memorandum ini kepada Tuan Yang Terutama, pada hari Jumaat, tanggal 16 Ogos, pada jam 10 petang di kediaman rasmi Tuan Yang Terutama. Kami, dengan penuh penghormatan dan kepercayaan, memohon kepada kerajaan negeri Pulau Pinang dan pihak berkuasa yang berkaitan, dengan penuh insaf untuk membatalkan projek penambakan selatan Pulau Pinang dan mencari jalan lain untuk melaksanakan pelan induk pengangkutan yang dapat menyelesaikan masalah lalulintas di Pulau Pinang.

Pada masa yang sama, kami juga menyeru kerajaan negeri supaya membatalkan projek penambakan pesisir pantai Butterworth dan terus gigih berusaha mencari pendekatan alternatif yang sesuai untuk menyelesaikan sebarang konsesi tertunggak daripada projek BORR.

Nazri Ahmad ialah pengerusi Persatuan Nelayan Pulau Pinang.


English version

Memorandum on Penang southern reclamation and Butterworth waterfront reclamation

We, the leaders who represent the inshore fishermen and traditional fishermen of Penang, would like to present our case before Tuan Yang Terutama.

We are the inshore fisherman who make our living around Penang (island) and the coast of Seberang Perai. Penang has had fishing villages, from the time it was under the sovereignty of the Kedah kingdom, before being ruled by the British. From our ancestors, we have inherited the knowledge of local fishermen, including sustainable and environmentally friendly ways to fish and harvest the fruit of the sea.

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Penang food has always been well known, one of the reasons being the quality and freshness of the fisherman’s catch. Penang is blessed with long stretches of beautiful beaches, lush mangroves and rich marine life. The waters around Penang used to be very clean and clear, abundant with fish and marine harvest.

As it says in the Qur’an An-Nahl (The Bee) 16:14

وَهُوَ الَّذِي سَخَّرَ الْبَحْرَ لِتَأْكُلُوا مِنْهُ لَحْمًا طَرِيًّا وَتَسْتَخْرِجُوا مِنْهُ حِلْيَةً تَلْبَسُونَهَا وَتَرَى الْفُلْكَ مَوَاخِرَ فِيهِ وَلِتَبْتَغُوا مِن فَضْلِهِ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ – 16:14

And it is He who subjected the sea for you to eat from it tender meat and to extract from it ornaments which you wear. And you see the ships plowing through it, and [He subjected it] that you may seek of His bounty; and perhaps you will be grateful.

Our coastal fishing communities are among the oldest communities in Penang. However, today, our basic human rights are at stake. In the name of development, our villages are displaced, our beaches are requisitioned, our mangroves and our fishing grounds are destroyed. Piles of garbage are jettisoned along the seafront polluting our estuarial and coastal waters. Sand is dumped into our oceans to reclaim new land for others.

Within our lifetime, fishermen have been negatively impacted by a series of reclamation projects and bridge construction works. Starting with Bayan Lepas and the Lim Chong Eu Expressway, followed by the Penang Bridge, Seri Tanjung Pinang phase 1, Queensbay, Butterworth Outer Ring Road, Sultan Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah Bridge, IJM The Light, Bayan Bay, Seri Tanjung Pinang phase 2 (STP2), and Gurney Wharf, the state government of Penang has reclaimed more than one thousand acres of land.

Each time, a coastal reclamation project is implemented, we, the fishermen, have had to face difficulties due to the removal of our existing jetties and other facilities. Our seas have become narrower and more polluted, we have lost access to our fisheries, and our income is declining. We would like to cite two examples of reclamation projects which have resulted in the lowering of fishermen’s living standards over the last 20 years.

The first case was the Butterworth Outer Ring Road (2003–2006), which affected the fishermen of Butterworth. The fishermen were promised compenation (saguhati) of RM12,000 each, but to date this has not been fully paid up. The Butterworth Fishermen’s Unit was promised a replacement jetty, but up till now the promise has not been fulfilled. Even a temporarily allocated site has been usurped by others.

The second case is the Seri Tanjung Pinang phase 2 (STP2) project (from 2016 until now) affecting fishermen from Tanjung Bungah, Tanjung Tokong, Gurney, and Paramount. Each affected boat owner (tekong) was paid a compensation (saguhati) of RM15,000 while each crew member (awak-awak) was only been paid RM2,000. Although a signboard for a new jetty has been installed long ago, it has not been built.

Since the STP2 project, Indian mackerel (ikan kembong) which used to be plentiful in Tanjung Tokong and north of the Penang Channel has been difficult to find of late, even thoughthe Malaysian Fisheries Development Board (LKIM) has classified it as the “people’s fish” (ikan rakyat). The STP2 project has affected water quality from the Penang Channel to Teluk Bahang, including the coastal tourism belt of ​​Batu Feringghi, which has lost its lustre as an international tourism destination. The STP2 reclamation has also had a negative impact on coastal fisheries opposite Butterworth.

In both the Butterworth and Tanjung Tokong cases, the compensation provided to fishermen is not enough to compensate for the decline in their livelihood. Now, the affected fishermen have to work harder and longer to get half the catch from that which they used to enjoy before coastal reclamation. They also need to take on other jobs just to earn a living and provide for their families. In both cases, the sea is still contaminated with mud and sludge. Fishermen often suffer losses and damage to nets because, instead of catching fish, they are usually pulling out jellyfish as well as debris and residue from reclamation.

In the past, we, the fishermen have patiently put up with the effects of coastal reclamation. But we cannot continue to keep quiet because it has been proven repeatedly that the resulting maritime pollution is damaging to the environment and also causing fishermen to suffer losses. In addition, fishermen have been given false assurances that the impact of the coastal reclamation is only temporary, but up till now the seas have not been rehabilited.

The government and developers have not made any concerted effort to restore the fisheries. In fact, the fishermen have become victims of development. Objectively, the impacts of reclamation on the environment and fisheries can no longer be denied. As a result, we, the fishermen, have no choice but to strongly object to any future reclamation project.

We strongly oppose the Penang South Reclamation (PSR) planned by the Penang state government. This area is the best and most productive fisheries location in Penang as well as the most important source of prawns in the state. The scale of the PSR reclamation, which covers 4,500 acres (the same size as “Forest City” in Johor), will cause widespread destruction of marine life. Some of the effluents will also distress the marine aquaculture in Pulau Betong, Batu Maung and Sungai Udang.

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The decline in marine resources in southern Penang Island will disappoint not only fishermen in southern Penang Island but also fishermen from other parts of Penang, Kedah and Perak, who come with hundreds of boats to visit this golden zone. Reclamation will also threaten marine biodiversity and endangered marine species such as the olive ridley turtle (listed as vulnerable by the IUCN), the green turtle, the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin and the Indo-Pacific finless porpoise. The damage would spread to Pulau Kendi and Pulau Rimau, thus destroying natural coral reefs and jeopardising this significant fisheries spawning area.

The agriculture minister acknowledged that as many as 5,000 fishermen in Penang would be affected by the southern Penang reclamation and that full recovery could only commence once the project was completed, which is after 15 years. Fishermen from northern Perak totaling 9,000, will also be adversely affected by the sand mining of 189.1 million cubic metres over an area of 819.7 sq km.

Moreover, with climate change and rising sea levels, it is anticipated that the islands which are not significantly raised above sea level will not have any permanence. Instead, the islands will easily become flooded in coming decades and will simply return to the sea. However, during this time, the environment will already be devastated and the inshore fishermen will threatened with extinction.

We are also strongly opposed to the 650-hectare land concession along the Butterworth waterfront. The Butterworth coastal reclamation will threaten Bagan Ajam beach and the heritage kampong of Bagan Ajam, which is already well known as a tourist attraction.

This reclamation will also result in ecosystem damage to Teluk Ayer Tawar, the only mangrove forest with International Union for Conservation of Nature-listed ”vulnerable” avivennia rumphiana (bakau api-api bulu) in northeastern Peninsular Malaysia and the important bird and biodiversity area visited by migratory birds. The fishermen’s livelihoods depend on the mangrove ecosystem which is essential for breeding and sustaining marine life.

In Malaysia’s constitution, we are guaranteed the right to life and freedom. The right to life includes the right to livelihood through legitimate sources of of income. We do not oppose development, but such development as this which destroys the lives of thousands of fishermen can be said to be going against the principles of natural justice. This type of development, which damages the environment, will not bring good outcomes.

As cited in the Qur’anic verse, Ar-Rum (The Romans) 30:41

ظَهَرَ الْفَسَادُ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ أَيْدِي النَّاسِ لِيُذِيقَهُم بَعْضَ الَّذِي عَمِلُوا لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ –

Corruption has appeared throughout the land and sea by [reason of] what the hands of people have earned so He may let them taste part of [the consequence of] what they have done that perhaps they will return [to righteousness].

Before dreaming of more reclamation projects, the state government has to prove to us that the fisheries can be restored in the reclaimed area. If the state government still wishes to pursue a project that clearly has negative impacts, then it is certain that the state has knowingly chosen development that is not sustainable or equitable. Unsustainable development will threaten the future of future generations, who will no longer be able to enjoy natural wild-caught fish and seafood.

More than 200,000 people are already aware that the southern Penang reclamation project will have extremely negative impacts, which is why they have signed the Penang Tolak Tambak petition. The Change.org petition “Save Penang! Reject the 3-Islands Reclamation!” has received more than 60,000 signatures and is supported by 50 civil society organiaations. An international petition to rescue Malaysian turtles which nest along the beaches of Penang and Perak has been signed by more than 150,000 people. People around the world will be the witnesses of the fate of Penang’s environment.

On 11 July this year, we marched to Parliament with 200 fishermen from Penang and Perak, together with non-governmental organisations, to present a memorandum to the prime minister and other ministers. Indeed, fishermen who have experienced the effects of reclamation for decades will no longer remain silent and do nothing. We will not hesitate to bring our case to the highest level, whether at the state, national or international level, until these reclamation projects are fully canceled.

Accordingly, we who represent the fishermen of Penang, hereby request permission to submit this memorandum to the Tuan Yang Terutama on Friday, 16 August, at 10am at the official residence of Tuan Yang Terutama. With all due respect and good faith, we appeal to the Penang state government and the relevant authorities, to cancel the Penang South Reclamation project and to earnestly look for other ways to implement a transport masterplan that will solve Penang’s traffic congestion.

At the same time, we also urge the Penang state government to cancel the Butterworth waterfront reclamation project and continue to endeavour to find a viable alternative to resolve any outstanding concessions from the Borr project.

Nazri Ahmad is chairman of the Penang Fishermen’s Association.

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