Perintah kawalan pergerakan: Tatacara tangkapan, penahanan pesalah yang didakwa (Malay/English)

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We need to avoid congestion in cells and prisons - File photo: themalaymailonline

[ENGLISH VERSION BELOW] Suruhanjaya Hak Asasi Manusia Malaysia (Suhakam) menzahirkan kebimbangannya terhadap tatacara tangkapan dan penahanan pesalah-pesalah yang didakwa melanggar perintah kawalan pergerakan.

Memasuki minggu ketiga perintah ini, dilaporkan sebanyak 4,189 tangkapan dan 1,449 pendakwaan telah dilaksanakan.

Kurangnya penjarakkan sosial serta langkah-langkah keselamatan semasa proses tangkapan dan penahanan menunjukkan bahawa tatacara operasi standard, sekiranya ada, mungkin tidak disampaikan sepenuhnya kepada pegawai yang melaksanakan tugas ataupun ia gagal difahami sebaiknya.

Merujuk kepada rakaman di mana sekumpulan remaja didakwa melanggar perintah kawalan perkurungan telah dirotan oleh pihak berkuasa di Sabah, Suhakam ingin mengingatkan bahawa ia merupakan tindakan yang salah di sisi undang-undang, kejam, menjatuhkan maruah dan bercanggah dengan prinsip hak asasi manusia.

Tambahan pula, apabila ianya melibatkan kanak-kanak, adalah mencukupi untuk menghalang mereka dengan memberikan amaran untuk kesalahan pertama sebelum mereka dihantar pulang ke rumah.

Menurut Peraturan 10, Peraturan-peraturan Lokap 1953, tahanan harus menjalani pemeriksaan kesihatan sejurus sebelum ditahan di lokap.

Walau bagaimanapun, realitinya, tiada pegawai perubatan terlatih ditempatkan di lokap-lokap polis. Berdasarkan pemerhatian semasa lawatan pemantauan dijalankan, kebanyakan lokap polis adalah kecil, dalam keadaan uzur, kurang pengudaraan dan pencahayaan semulajadi.

Ketiadaan langkah-langkah pencegahan sebaiknya dan jumlah pesalah-pesalah yang didakwa kerana ingkar arahan perintah kawalan pergerakan yang agak tinggi, boleh meningkatkan risiko ancaman kesihatan terhadap tahanan, pihak polis dan barisan hadapan yang terlibat dalam proses tangkapan dan penahanan.

Suhakam menyambut baik arahan ketua hakim negara baru-baru ini di mana prosiding reman boleh dilaksanakan di balai polis dalam tempoh perintah kawalan pergerakan. Walau bagaimanapun, ia tidak menjamin bahawa penjarakkan sosial akan dipatuhi sepenuhnya dalam waktu ini.

Suhakam turut bimbang berkenaan keadaan di dalam penjara, yang secara umumnya melebihi kapasitinya dan sesak dengan banduan. Sekiranya pihak berkuasa terus menjalankan tangkapan dan mendakwa lebih ramai pesalah perintah ini, ia akan meningkatkan lagi jumlah banduan yang ditempatkan di dalam ruang yang tertutup, di mana keadaan ini boleh merangsang kepada penularan segala penyakit berjangkit.

Semasa seluruh jentera Kerajaan dikerah sepenuhnya untuk memerangi pandemik dan segenap komuniti dikehendaki berada di rumah, mereka yang berada di dalam pusat tahanan dan mengalami kesukaran untuk mengamalkan penjarakkan sosial, tidak seharusnya dilupakan.

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Suhakam memuji usaha Jabatan Penjara Malaysia yang telah mengambil langkah-langkah pencegahan awal di dalam penjara setakat ini. Dalam pada itu, Suhakam akan terus menyarankan agar Polis DiRaja Malaysia dan Jabatan Imigresen Malaysia untuk membangunkan tatacara operasi standard selaras dengan keperluan penjarakkan sosial kesihatan awam dan juga prinsip-prinsip hak asasi manusia.

Suhakam telah berhubung dengan agensi-agensi penguatkuasaan dan berharap agar langkahlangkah mitigasi yang disenaraikan di bawah dapat dipertimbangkan untuk dilaksanakan dalam masa terdekat, sejajar dengan usaha membuat penambahbaikan pelaksanaan tugasan mereka:

Bagi mereka yang menjalani prosiding reman dan pendakwaan:

  • pesalah dakwaan ingkar perintah kawalan pergerakan bawah umur dan pesalah berita tidak benar, perlu dibebaskan dengan jaminan polis dan didakwa pada masa akan datang
  • sekiranya pesalah yang didakwa tidak mampu membayar ikat jamin, alternatif kepada ikat jamin secara tunai boleh merangkumi bon atau ikat jamin bukan wang tunai perlu dilaksanakan; manakala alternatif kepada sabitan dan denda boleh merangkumi perintah khidmat masyarakat
  • keutamaan untuk dibebaskan, perlu diberikan kepada mereka yang di bawah umur, wanita, orang kurang upaya, warga emas dan mereka yang mempunyai sakit kronik atau di bawah rawatan kesihatan. Peluang yang sama boleh diberikan kepada mereka yang didakwa di bawah kesalahan kecil atau kesalahan berkaitan keadaan sosioekonomi (kemiskinan) seperti mencuri

Bagi banduan di penjara:

Lebih kurang 30% banduan penjara merupakan banduan reman yang menunggu perbicaraan atau belum disabitkan kesalahan, mereka perlu diberikan pertimbangan untuk dibebaskan di bawah arahan pentadbiran khas. Ini termasuk:

  • banduan reman bawah umur, kesalahan tidak melibatkan keganasan atau penagih dadah yang tidak berisiko kepada keselamatan awam dan banduan yang berpenyakit kronik
  • banduan reman kesalahan sosioekonomi;
  • banduan warga emas dengan masalah kesihatan, termasuk kesihatan mental

Dalam tempoh masa yang genting sebegini, Suhakam menggesa orang ramai untuk memainkan peranan penting iaitu mematuhi arahan perintah kawalan pergerakan dan bekerjasama dengan pihak berkuasa dalam usaha memerangi pandemik ini, demi kebaikan kesihatan dan keselamatan diri sendiri serta masyarakat keseluruhannya.

English version

Movement control order: Arrests, detention of alleged offenders

The Human Rights Commission of Malaysia (Suhakam) expresses its deep concern on the conduct of arrests and detention of alleged offenders during the movement control order.

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It was reported that there had been 4,180 arrests and 1,449 charges made, as we moved into the third week of the movement control order.

Inadequate social distancing and poor safety measures in the process of arresting or detaining persons indicate that standard operating procedures, if there are any, have either not been sufficiently communicated to officers implementing them or been fully understood.

Having viewed a video where a group of teenagers were caned by authorities in Sabah for allegedly violating the movement control order, Suhakam reminds that such acts are unlawful, cruel and degrading and go against the principles of human rights.

Furthermore, where children are involved, a warning for a first offence before being sent home should serve as a sufficient deterrent.

According to Rule 10 of the Lock-up Rules 1953, it is a requirement for detainees to undergo a medical examination as soon as possible before they are held in cells. However, in reality, trained medical personnel are unavailable in police stations.

Based on observations during monitoring visits to police cells, most are small, in poor condition, and lack proper ventilation and natural light.

In the absence of proper preventive measures and the relatively high number of alleged offenders being detained under the movement control order, there may be an increased threat to the health of detainees, police personnel and other frontline personnel involved in the arrest and detention process.

Whilst Suhakam welcomes the chief justice’s recent directive for remand proceedings to be conducted at police stations for the duration of the movement control order, it does not guarantee that social distancing will be duly observed in the intervening days.

Suhakam has similar concerns with conditions in prisons, which are generally over its capacity and crowded with prisoners. If the authorities continue to arrest and charge more movement control order offenders, it will further increase the number of prisoners housed in confined spaces, where conditions are primed for the rapid spread of any infectious disease.

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Whilst the entire government machinery is geared up to battle the pandemic and the wider community stays at home, it would be remiss to overlook those who are in detention centres and unable to practise proper social distancing.

Suhakam commends the Prisons Department for precautionary measures implemented in prisons, thus far.

Suhakam will continue to advocate for the police and the Immigration Department to have proper standard operating procedures, which are in accordance with both public health social distancing requirements and basic human rights principles.

Suhakam had communicated with the enforcement agencies as they continue to make improvements on how they carry out their tasks and hopes the mitigation measures outlined below will be seriously considered for implementation in the immediate future.

For those under remand proceeding and charges:

  • alleged movement control order offenders, minors and fake news offenders to be released on police bail and charged at a later given date
  • where the offender is charged and unable to post bail, alternatives to cash bails may include bonds or non-cash bail while alternatives for convictions and fines could include undertaking community service
  • minors, women, persons with disability, older persons, those with chronic disease or under medical treatment should be prioritised for release. The same could be applied for those charged for minor offences or offences related to socioeconomic circumstances (poverty) such as petty theft

For prisoners:

About 30% of prison inmates are un-convicted or pre-trial remand prisoners, and they should be given due consideration for release under aspecial administrative directive.

These include:

  • remand prisoners for minor, non-violent offences or drug users who pose zero risk to public safety and prisoners with chronic illness
  • remand prisoners for socio-economic offences
  • senior citizen prisoners with medical conditions, including mental illness.

Finally, Suhakam urges members of the public to play a most important role, by complying with the movement control order and to fully cooperate with the authorities in efforts to combat the pandemic, for the health and safety of one and all, in this crucial time.

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