Hentikan rancangan tenaga nuklear

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A huge explosion at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan following a major earthquake and tsunami

Anak Malaysia Anti Nuklear (Aman) menentang pembinaan loji tenaga nuklear di Malaysia. (English version below)

A huge explosion at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan following a major earthquake and tsunami
A huge explosion at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan following a major earthquake and tsunami

Anak Malaysia Anti Nuklear (Aman) merupakan suatu gerakan rakyat akar umbi yang berpendapat bahawa tenaga nuklear tidak bersih, murah, selamat ataupun diperlukan bagi tujuan penjanaan kuasa elektrik di Malaysia. Dengan itu, Aman menentang pembinaan loji tenaga nuklear di Malaysia.

Aman sedar wujudnya penyebaran maklumat palsu dari penyokong-penyokong industri nuklear dan kumpulan-kumpulan yang mempunyai kepentingan tertentu serta ketidakwujudan ketelusan dalam perbincangan antara kerajaan dengan rakyat. Malaysia perlu berwaspada terhadap idea untuk mendirikan loji tenaga nuklear, lebih-lebih lagi apabila isu menangani sisa pembuangan radioaktif tidak mempunyai jalan yang selamat, lalu memberi kesan mudarat kekal terhadap kesihatan rakyat jelata.

Aman mendesak kerajaan supaya membatalkan rancangan EPP11: Menggunakan Tenaga Nuklear untuk Penjanaan Kuasa, yang terkandung dalam Program Transformasi Ekonomi (ETP), tetapi menukar fokus kepada penjanaan kuasa melalui tenaga boleh diperbaharui (RE) serta inisiatif keberkesanan tenaga (EE) untuk mengurangkan penggunaan elektrik.

Berikut merupakan tujah dasar bantahan Aman:

  1. Loji tenaga nuklear adalah sangat mahal dan merupakan langkah ekonomi yang tidak bijak. Ini mengambil kira kos dari pembinaan, operasi, serta aspek pengurusan sisa-sisa nuclear hinggalah penyahtauliahan (penutupan) sesebuah loji itu. Jika diambil kira isu sumber uranium yang bukan sahaja berbahaya tetapi juga mahal, ternyata langkah ini adalah satu kemunduran. Agensi Tenaga Atom Antarabangsa (IAEA) telah menyatakan bahawa sekurang-kurangnya RM350bn diperlukan bagi proses penutupan 40 buah loji nuklear dalam 25 tahun yang akan datang.
  2. Dewasa ini, bencana alam sering berlaku disebabkan perubahan iklim, loji tenaga nuklear jelas sangat terdedah kepada risiko tinggi bencana alam, seperti yang dilihat ketika peristiwa Fukushima, Jepun. Tiada jaminan loji nuklear 100 peratus selamat daripada kesilapan operasi ataupun sabotaj mahupun ancaman pengganas. Malaysia langsung tidak bersedia untuk kejadian sebegitu, yang akan menyebabkan negara ini tidak akan dapat didiami untuk beratus tahun.
  3. Tenaga nuklear tidak selamat, semacam bom jangka yang bakal meletup pada bila-bila masa. Meski pun, penyokong industri nuklear pula mengatakan sebaliknya, tetapi tetap juga berlaku bencana seperti Fukushima yang belum lagi ada jalan penyelesaiannya. Sudah terang lagi bersuluh, ancaman paling hebat terhadap kesihatan manusia berpunca daripada radiasi sisa-sisa nuklear yang akan kekal sebegitu bagi tempoh beribu-ribu tahun serta tiada kaedah untuk pelupusan kekal dan selamat.
  4. Malaysia tidak perlu mendirikan loji tenaga nuklear bagi tujuan penjanaan elektrik kerana penjanaan sekarang dan yang sudah dirancang serta daripada sumber-sumber lain mencukupi. Malah, usaha perlu ditumpukan untuk Tenaga boleh diperbaharui dan juga tenaga lestari yang boleh mengurangkan sehingga 30 peratus penggunaan elektrik.
  5. Selain daripada negara Cina, kadar pembinaan loji tenaga nuklear sedang menjunam, dengan satu sahaja loji tenaga nuklear yang sedang didirikan di Amerika Syarikat. Di negara Jerman pula, mereka telah menggubal undang-undang sedia ada supaya tenaga nuklear dihentikan menjelang tahun 2022 dan negara Perancis juga akan berbuat demikian.
  6. Jika Malaysia memilih menggunakan tenaga nuklear, Malaysia akan terpaksa bergantung kepada kuasa asing bagi teknologi serta bekalan sumber nuklear. Hal ini akan mengganggu keselamatan sumber tenaga Malaysia.
  7. Loji nuklear juga akan menghasilkan plutonium yang boleh disalahgunakan, lalu membuka ruang untuk percambahan senjata nuklear. Hal ini secara langsung melanggar dasar Malaysia yang sudahpun menentang penggunaan senjata nuklear.

Secara umumnya, kegunaan tenaga nuklear sedang berkurangan. Pada tahun 2003, terdapat 438 loji nuklear yang beroperasi, manakala pada hari ini, hanya terdapat 388 loji yang masih aktif. Peratus penggunaan tenaga nuklear juga telah menurun, daripada 17.8 peratus pada tahun 1996 kepada 10.8 peratus pada tahun 2013. Sejak dari tahun 2000, kadar peningkatan tahunan bagi tenaga suria adalah sebanyak 25 peratus dan sejumlah 43 peratus bagi tenaga angin. Manakala tenaga nuklear pula menurun sebanyak 0.4 peratus.

Negara Jerman telah berjaya dalam usaha melupuskan penggunaan tenaga nuklear dan sedang menghala ke arah tenaga boleh diperbaharui. Perancis pula telah meluluskan usul di Parlimen mereka untuk mengurangkan penggunaan tenaga nuklear daripada 75 peratus kepada 50 peratus, sejurusnya meningkat kadar penjanaan tenaga boleh diperbaharui daripada 15 peratus ke 40 peratus.

Amat jelas, Malaysia wajar mengambil tindakan untuk menghentikan rancangan tenaga nuklear kerana langkah tersebut akan mendatangkan risiko yang amat hebat terhadap keselamatan tenaga negara. Kos dasar ini juga amat tinggi dan jauh melebihi semua faedah yang boleh dihasilkan.

Aman menyeru kerajaan Malaysia melakukan perkara yang betul untuk kebaikan semua dan juga buat generasi mendatang.

23 Disember 2014


Anak Malaysia Anti Nuklear (Aman) is a grassroots citizen movement that is convinced that nuclear power is not cheap, clean or safe and that it is not required for the generation of electricity in Malaysia. Aman therefore rejects the construction of any nuclear power plant in Malaysia.

Aman is aware of the ongoing dissemination of false information by the nuclear industry and other vested interests and that there has not been any genuine transparency of the government’s intentions nor sincere public consultation. Our country must not make the serious mistake of investing in and constructing a nuclear power plant, particularly when there is no existing method of safely disposing of long-lasting radioactive nuclear waste, which will threaten the health of future generations of Malaysians.

Aman urges the government to abort EPP11: Deploying Nuclear Energy for Power Generation, which is part of the Economic Transformation Programme (ETP), or any other similar plan, but instead concentrate and focus efforts on renewable energy and energy efficiency.

Aman has taken this position, based on seven key factors:

  1. A nuclear power plant is an enormously expensive and economically unwise project, from the construction and operating costs to the management of nuclear waste and eventual decommissioning of the plant. Factor in the dangerous and high cost of uranium required and you have an economically backward move. The International Atomic Energy Agency has stated that it will take at the very least US$100bn over the next 25 years to decommission 40 nuclear power plants.
  2. With the increasing likelihood of serious natural disasters as a result of climate change, nuclear power plants will prove to be vulnerable to natural disasters and accidents, as with the recent Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster. There is also no 100 per cent guarantee that a nuclear power plant would be safe from human error, sabotage or terrorist attack. Malaysia is not equipped to handle such catastrophic nuclear disasters which will make large areas of the country uninhabitable for hundreds of years.
  3. Nuclear power is not safe and has proven to be a ticking time bomb. Proponents of the nuclear industry claim that nuclear power plants are safe, and yet the human and environmental disaster of Fukushima continues to worsen and defies any solution. It cannot be over emphasised that the greatest danger to human health comes from radiation emitted by nuclear waste, which remains radioactive for thousands of years and yet cannot be disposed of safely, ever since the beginning of the nuclear age.
  4. There is no need to build a nuclear power plant to generate electricity as Malaysia’s existing and planned electricity by other means is sufficient. Instead, there should be a concerted effort to explore renewable energy for greener growth, as well as energy efficiency which can reduce up to 30 per cent of power consumption.
  5. Apart from China, the rate of construction of nuclear power plants is skydiving, with only one plant constructed in the United States. By law, Germany will end its use of nuclear power by 2022, and France plans to do the same.
  6. A nuclear power plant will make Malaysia dependent on foreign technology, and dependence on foreign supply of nuclear materials will impact on energy security.
  7. A nuclear power plant will open the door to the misuse of plutonium, leading to nuclear weapons proliferation, although Malaysia has always opposed the use of nuclear weapons and advocates the elimination of nuclear weapons.

Globally, the use of nuclear power as an energy source is in decline. In 2003, there were 438 operating nuclear power plants, but today only 388 remain in operation. The world’s use of nuclear energy has dropped from 17.8 per cent in 1996 to 10.8 per cent in the year 2013. Since the year 2000, the growth per annum of solar-based energy has been 25 per cent, wind 43 per cent, and nuclear -0.4 per cent.

Germany has been very successful in its effort to phase out nuclear energy and is now shifting its policy towards renewable energy. France, which has always been a strong proponent and role model for nuclear energy, has passed a motion in Parliament to cut its dependency on nuclear from 75 per cent to 50 per cent and to increase its dependency on renewable energy from 15 per cent to 40 per cent.

In the light of the above, there is concrete evidence to suggest that Malaysia should scrap whatever plans it has to go nuclear, as it is a threat to energy security, and the risks totally outweigh any perceived benefit.

We urge the government to do the right thing for the benefit of generations to come.

Dato’ Dr Ronald McCoy is the chair of Anak Malaysia Anti Nuklear (Aman)

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Dr Ronald McCoy, is president of the Malaysian Physicians for Social Responsiblity and past co-president of International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, which received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1985. He retired as an obstetrician and gynaecologist and believes that the babies he delivered and everyone else deserve to live in a peaceful world, free of nuclear weapons and nuclear reactors.
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